Animal Farm-Research Paper
Luke Campbell Mrs. P. McDonald English 11 P4 March 9th, 2011 A FAIRY STORY During the twentieth century, individuals of the world saw the fluctuate of many countries and leaders. This was a time of high tensions and cautious diplomacy, where individuals had to tread thoroughly lest they become suspicious. Nevertheless, some used up a crusade against this mindful mindset and utilized writing to diffuse circumstances. In his novel Animal Farm, George Orwell uses his mastery of satire to talk about and parody people and occasions in the Soviet Union throughout the mid-twentieth century.
When George Orwell set out to write Animal Farm, his purpose was to “fuse political and artistic purpose into one whole, offering a disillusion through wit, dramatized paradox, and intertextuality” (Flower 147). He sought to compose a sort of parable or modern fairy tale that drew facts from real-world events, events which it in turn would brighten (Smyer 106). Orwell chose to compose particularly about the Soviet Union in an allegorical sense for lots of factors. At the time of Orwell’s writing, lots of feared the rise of socialist or communist governments.
Through Animal Farm, Orwell was able to present people, ideas, or organizations as silly or unreasonable, while not straight attacking a particular figure, country, or ideal. He used this medium to expose extremist political ideals that he believed were dangerous (Lea 97). Throughout the novel, “specific general messages appear clear: power damages, passivity is dangerous, freedom dearly won may be lost, and political motions with excellent intents can turn wicked” (Greenblatt 103). With 2 these messages in mind, Orwell stretched his imagination to the limits.
He created an unclear English farm, where he had the ability to envision “speaking animals, plants, objects, and human beings” that “metaphorically highlight and satirize human conduct” (Flower 159). With these tools set to his particular objectives, Orwell unconsciously set out to compose what is commonly considered as on of the greatest satires of the modern age. There are a vast myriad of ways in which Orwell utilizes his satire and parody extremely well, yet the most impressive is his usage of characters in Animal Farm as signs that parallel well-known figures and people in the Soviet Union.
This satiric use of animals to make humans appear ludicrous or brutal is known as “satiric decrease”, a technique utilized most commonly in fables (Lea 117). Orwell puts this to great use, cleverly camouflaging not only the masses of the Soviet Union, however likewise the national figures as various animals on the Manor Farm. Certain species of animals have certain traits, qualities which specify the personalities of the real-life equivalents they are utilized to represent. These qualities go on to not only show however explain and form the personalities of those they parody. Animal Farm covers both genres: the sheep remain sheep; the canines, dogs; the cat, a cat; but the pigs, horses, and donkey all display aspects of ‘human personality'” (Blossom 159). The animals that show the levels of human character are those animals that in the end either desert all hope of successful revolution or rule the farm and become the governing bourgeoisie over the lower animals. For example, Orwell used the common species of the pigs to represent “power starving collectivists that used their exceptional rhetoric to sway animals less smart than themselves” (Greenblatt 114).
4 pigs in specific stand out in Animal Farm: Old Major, Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer. Together, they represent both the leaders of revolution in the Soviet Union along with their methods of governing. First of all, Old Major is used to 3 represent Karl Marx, the developer of communism or in this case, “animalism”. He firmly insisted that the working animals rebel for higher right and federal government, which is the basic property of Marx’s Communist Manifesto (Greenblatt 123). Snowball is utilized to represent Leon Trotsky, leader of the notorious “October Transformation”.
Snowball is young, optimistic, smart, and gifted in oration; and truly wishes to improve the quality of life for all animals on the farm. He shares all these qualities with his non-fictional counterpart Trotsky, in addition to his insistence on remaining real to the starting principles of the revolution’s starting principles (Lamont). However, much like the genuine Trotsky, he is eventually betrayed by his long time buddy Napoleon; used to represent Joseph Stalin (Smyer 156). Instead of being worthy and onorable as Snowball set out to be, Napoleon is not really clever and has to turn to cruel, brutal, selfish approaches; killing those who oppose his routine and ideas much as Stalin did during his increase to power. His only care is for power, and he cares not for the concepts that the revolution was founded on, likewise similar to Stalin. The last member of the pigs is called Squealer, and rather than representing a specific figure, he represents all the media and propaganda utilized mostly by Stalin post-revolution in the Soviet Union.
He changes and controls the rules of government, and encourages all of the animal “comrades” to follow their wonderful leader to an intense new future, similar to the lurid pro-communism media in the U. S. S. R. (Lamont). In addition to the pigs, and range of fearsome canines are utilized to provide a rather accurate satire of the KGB, the secret police of Stalin’s, or rather Napoleon’s routine. “… 9 enormous canines wearing brass-studded collars came bounding into the barn. They dashed directly for Snowball, who just sprang from his location in the nick of time to escape their snapping jaws” (Orwell 89).
Utilized to the hilt, the dogs spy on the other animals and 4 enforce the pig’s rule, just like the KGB’s surveillance of citizens in Russia (Flower 154). Lastly, horses and donkeys play a big role in Animal Farm, “representing a link to the past, in contrast to disobedience on the farm” (Lea 35). They represent those who were reluctant of transformation, and effort to make the animals on the Manor Farm sensible and optimistic. Frequently, Benjamin the donkey is stated to be the voice of Orwell himself, “supplying a voice of dry wit and smart apprehension” (Smyer 96).
Fighter and Clover are both used to represent the working classes of the socialist transformation, both being strong, hardworking, and devoted to Snowball and Napoleon, even as they become disillusioned and the transformation ultimately draws out of control (Lamont). All in all, these representations are spot on, permitting Orwell to establish his satire extremely successfully. Not limited just to the satire of people, Orwell utilizes a range of signs and motifs throughout Animal Farm to satirize the idea of communism and revolution, in addition to Russia’s communist revolution specifically.
Carefully mirroring the Bolshevik Transformation, Animal Farm as an entire “reveals the totalitarian nature of Stalinist views and Bonapartist socialism in the Soviet Union” (Lea 122). In addition to this,” [battles in Animal Farm] can be viewed as stages of larger historic rhythm of innovative action and counterrevolutionary reaction” (Lea 122). The Manor Farm, later on changed to Animal Farm, represents the nation of Russia as an entire, with the internal government structure of a country, separated from its neighbors, in both viewpoint and technique of guideline. Supporting this bigger, underlying symbol, Orwell utilizes a range of others to support it.
Farmer Jones represents Czar Nicholas II, an irresponsible and sometimes harsh leader who is overthrown by his animals, or in the czars case, his topics (Lamont). Animalism is Communism adjusted for animals, promoting self guideline and equality, spouting such 5 principles as “Four legs good, two legs bad” (Orwell 43) and later on, “All animals are equivalent, but some are more equivalent than others” (Orwell 117). Animalism focuses on a classless society, yet with time the advancement of a judgment and lower class are seen, embodied in the titles “Animal Hero: First and Second Class” (Orwell 56).
Likewise, just like communism, it concentrates on a dependence on industry, which in Animal Farm is represented by Snowball’s windmill, something that ultimately stops working and practically leaves the farm in ruin; not unlike the economic depression that established in the Soviet Union throughout the late 1940s (Greenblatt 137). However, as in the Soviet Union, the revolution eventually leaves all included disappointed, save for the couple of that command ruling the masses. While trying to make life better for all, not only did life in actuality become worse, even the leaders were more oppressive and harsh than those that came before them.
In the end, all that was left were disillusioned masses, questioning if what they had done was best (Lamont). Animal Farm is commonly considered to be an abundant satire, filled with remarkable character that properly represent and offer opinions about its satirical targets. Orwell’s use of animals to portray revolutionaries and his masterful symbolism provide us with among the most talked about satires of the contemporary age. This “little fairy story … with political meaning” (Bloom 158) supplied the world with an accurate and believed provoking image of the Soviet Union.