In common modernist style, William Faulkner experiments in his deal with a number of nontraditional stylistic and thematic attributes, consisting of brokenness, fragmentation, misery, pessimism, perception distortion, and the rejection of social norms. In his novel As I Lay Dying, he focuses on a sense of alienation and separation, especially within the Bundren household. Members of the Bundren household display different dysfunctional relationships with one another, with their fans, and even with God. Examples of these relationships consist of husband and wife, moms and dad to kid and sibling to sibling; in a number of these cases, the Bundrens display seemingly violent affection toward each other.
Addie and Anse, the heads of the Bundren family, do not supply an example of the ideal marriage. In reality, this duo is the embodiment of a damaged communion. Each treats the other as more of a concern than somebody to rely on; both may even choose self-reliance to the business of their spouse. Their indifference toward one another begins as quickly as they are engaged, and for excellent factor. Addie’s choice to wed Anse occurs without much factor to consider. Upon realizing that he owns a little piece of property, falsely thinking that he is a difficult worker with a “great sincere name,” Addie decides to take him up on his offer; as she nonchalantly puts it: “So I took Anse” (Faulkner 171). Quickly thereafter, nevertheless, suffering sets in. After bring to life Money, Addie claims that her “aloneness” has actually been violated. Addie detests motherhood nearly as much as she pertains to abhor her lazy, worthless husband. After finding that she was pregnant with Darl, Addie “thought that [she] would eliminate Anse,” she was so upset (172 ). Addie thought that Anse had actually fooled her into having another kid by his use of words. Making use of the word “love” was absolutely nothing more than a tool of adjustment in Addie’s eyes. From that point forward, he is dead to her. Anse’s “love” for Addie results in the unhappiness that derives from sleep deprived motherhood. Even as a schoolteacher, Addie dislikes the children; in fact, she enjoys hating the kids and likes having the benefit to whip them.
Addie’s hatred for her partner grows to the point that she lay awake during the night, alone in her self-pity, thinking, “Anse. Why Anse. Why are you Anse” (173 ). She longs to be rid of him and misses her innocence, along with the shape of her virgin body, both of which were intact before fulfilling him. At this juncture, as soon as Anse had “passed away” to her, Addie makes the conscious decision to sin against God and her husband. Driven by her anguish, Addie discovers herself sinning in the arms of the ordained priest, Whitfield. Addie falls deeply in love, for the very first time in her life, with Whitfield. However the affair ends as unexpectedly as it started. The only remaining fragment of Addie’s damaged heart is available in the type of a 3rd child boy, appropriately named Gem.
Though Addie extremely maltreats her other half, Anse’s regard for his better half is very little better. He sees his marital relationship more as a well thought-out company deal rather of a committed acknowledgement of love and commitment. Anse looks for Addie for her looks and perhaps a wage that would pay to his benefit. His proposal to Addie happens with no extra understanding of who she is as a person; therefore, plainly, love and respect never ever had the opportunity to establish. Once Addie gets sick, Anse waits up until it is far too late prior to calling Medical professional Peabody, more worried with saving cash than his passing away other half. Confused and outraged, Peabody asks, “Why didn’t you send out for me earlier?” and, upon hearing Anse’s explanation, exclaims, “Damn the money. Did you ever hear of me worrying a fellow prior to he was ready to pay?” (44 ). Author of the short article “As I Lay Perishing: Faulkner’s All in the Family,” Linda W. Wagner narrows in on Anse’s “non-action” as “parasitic mockery.” Wagner points out that Anse is, paradoxically, able to sustain– outlasting the more active and ambitious– regardless of his laziness, indifference, and even carelessness (Wagner 73). Anse reaches selfishly claiming that his wife’s misfortune is merely the effect of “bad luck,” apparently doing not have any sort of compassion. Anse appears to think this bad luck of his originates from living by a road “where bad luck prowling can find it and come straight to my door, charging me taxes on top of it” (Faulkner 36). Upon Addie’s deathbed, Anse can not even discover it within himself to shed a tear, or show any sort of sadness for that matter. After awkwardly staring at his dead other half for a brief moment, he apathetically mentions, “God’s will be done. Now I can get them teeth” (52 ). Even the next-door neighbors’ daughter, Kate Tull, acknowledges Anse’s absence of appreciation for his spouse and anticipates that once Addie dies, “he’ll get another one prior to cotton-picking” (34 ). Though Anse might not outwardly detest Addie as she does him, he does plainly lack any sort of affection for his spouse– dead or alive.
The Bundren grownups are not the only dysfunctional members of this family, however; the Bundren kids likewise show screens of unusual affinities with each other. Instead of having bonded compassion for their siblings, they each show a kind of hostility toward one or more other members of their household. Darl and Jewel, for instance, quite clearly do not like each other. Darl’s distaste for his sibling derives from the apparent understanding that Jewel is their mother’s most cherished accomplishment. Darl’s jealously causes him to deal with Jewel with distain. Fully aware that his mother will pass away in their lack, Darl basically forces Jewel to accompany him on an objective for 3 dollars because, “I desire him to assist me load,” he says (28 ). Darl advances his bro’s discomfort by callously duplicating, “Jewel, do you understand that Addie Bundren is going to pass away? Addie Bundren is going to pass away?” (40 ). Wagner explains that, “For Darl, his mom’s choice for Jewel is consistent torture […] Jewel’s anguish is Darl’s delight, cut off as he has actually been from Addie’s love by the taciturn younger boy. Darl resides in Gem’s emotions” (Wagner 75). Addie’s poor ethical attributes have actually been handed down and affect her children in more ways than one. Maybe if Addie had provided all of her children more attention and equality, they would not have actually grown to treat each other with such resentment.
Addie’s maladjusted nature trickles down to her naïve, teen child, Dewey Dell, whose relationship with Darl has its defects also. Darl, with his uncannily clairvoyant capabilities, is particularly in tune with Dewey Dell. After she sleeps with Lafe and conceives, Darl makes a point to somehow silently inform Dewey Dell that he understands what occurred and is not delighted about it. In her own words, “I saw Darl and he knew. He said he understood without the words like he told me that ma is going to die without words […] and I stated ‘Are you going to kill him?’ […] which’s why I can talk with him with understanding with hating since he knows” (Faulkner 27). Darl’s knowledge of his sibling’s circumstances triggers her to abhor him. She is ashamed and embarrassed of having actually developed out of wedlock, particularly considering the period, therefore Darl’s understanding is an extra problem for her to bear. She would rather endure this problem unaccompanied; she even declines to inform Lafe. Darl’s comprehension leaves Dewey Dell feeling exposed, naked even. She feels him viewing her, his eyes “swim [ming] to pin points. They begin at my feet and rise along my body to my face, and then my gown is gone.” Dewey Dell ends up being caused by her sibling’s understanding to the point of having problems about him. She once dreams that she “rose and took the knife from the streaming fish still hissing and [she] eliminated Darl” (121 ). Plainly, Dewey Dell is so distraught by this twist of fate that she would choose her own brother’s death to his awareness of her mistake.
Darl is not the only individual Dewey Dell seems to have a not practical relationship with, however. The dynamic in between Dewey Dell and her lover, Lafe, is likewise really unpleasant and irregular. Initially, consider the way in which Dewey Dell develops. The act of sleeping with Lafe happens impulsively and without verification of his love. Specifically for this time period, losing her virginity without notions of love and under unwed circumstances was unusual. The choice, to her, seems liked the next unavoidable aspect of her day on the farm. She leaves the fate of this life-altering choice as much as the current state of her everyday task in the way of a little woman playing “he loves me, he likes me not.” She says, “if it do not imply for me to do it the sack will not be full and I will show up the next row but if the sack is full, I can not assist it” (27 ). For that reason, once the sack was complete, her decision was made for her. Her mindset toward the circumstance after the truth even more demonstrates the immature quality of their relationship. The pair lacks any sort of closeness or bond that allows Dewey Dell to be comfortable with Lafe and the unfortunate outcome of events. She does not even wish to tell Lafe about the baby and consistently remarks, “He might repair everything right, if he just would. And he don’t even understand it. He could do whatever for me if he felt in one’s bones it” (63 ). This quote confirms that she desires nothing to do with Lafe’s baby, and yet she declines to mention this consequence to him despite the fact that she requires his assistance taking care of the situation. The truth that she is not just prepared but likewise desperate to be rid of the kid inside of her more shows that she does not like Lafe; what happened in between them was just an inevitable event. Possibly, as she has matured witnessing her parents’ lack of affection toward one another, this concept of “settling” has been depicted as acceptable to her. In addition, given that Addie has actually proved to be an insufficient mom to her kids, consisting of Dewey Dell, her child has actually not been exposed to typical motherly nature. For That Reason, Dewey Dell has no desire to raise a family of her own because of her mother’s own dislike for her provided function.
The negative effect of Addie’s personality on all of her kids is apparent; her indifference (towards all however Jewel) leaves them feeling just as alone as she does even as they crave her affection. The effects of her favoring of Gem are most noticeable in Darl. The silent bond that Jewel and Addie share triggers Darl to jealously treat Jewel improperly. Wagner claims that “the character of Darl himself– in all his mockery, hurt perception– is only further proof of the power of Addie’s acts” (Wagner 75). Vardaman, as the youngest, is likewise deeply devastated by his mother’s death– mostly most likely because he was never given the opportunity to be loved by her. Now that she’s gone, he feels like he has actually failed in making her attention and will not be able to attempt any longer. After her death, his speech and actions drift toward madness; Wagner discusses, “The grief-crazed child parallels Gem because he can bear his mother’s death just through action […] In anguish at this mom’s absence, Vardaman runs Peabody’s team, hides, walks four miles to the Tulls’ home, opens his mom’s window so that she can feel the rain, and lastly augurs holes into her casket (and face) for the exact same purpose” (Wagner 77). Throughout the novel, he confusingly denies his mother’s death, and at one point thinks that she is a fish and her death was his duty. Clearly, if Addie is dead then she has no need to “feel the rain,” however Vardaman declines this possibility. After she passes, he states, “Then I start to sob. I can feel where the fish remained in the dust. It is cut up into pieces of not-fish now, not blood on my hands and overalls. Then it wasn’t so” (Faulkner 52). His confusion for what he has done to the fish and what has actually occurred to his mom is fantastic. As time passes, the 2 occurrences mesh totally into one, and a total section of Vardaman’s only states, “My mom is a fish” (84 ). As the youngest child, Vardaman’s reaction to his mother’s death is the most extreme and remarkable. The remaining children react more subtly.
The relationship between Dewey Dell and Addie is so insignificant that she hardly requires time to mourn her mom’s passing, consumed as she is by her own problem. Jewel, on the other hand, taken by his mother’s unique affection, grows to resemble her characteristics most carefully– especially her subtle and silent personality. Darl comments, “That’s why she called him Jewel”; he was her most treasured things, equivalent to a precious gem (18 ). Both are violent, quiet, and have an unspoken and deep love for the other. The destruction, sorrow and psychological damage Addie has actually triggered her children in her wake are direct repercussions of the method she treated them separately while alive. Addie is acutely knowledgeable about the results of her actions and even remarks, “Cora Tull would tell me I was not a true mother,” and yet she does nothing to alter this truth. Her favoring of Gem and overlook of the others produces a cycle of insecurity and hostility amongst her kids, however Addie stays indifferent.
Numerous characters in the novel likewise have intriguing perceptions of their relationship with God. Much of these relationships are egocentric and self-righteous while being judgmental of others. Take Addie, for example. Unlike a lot of ladies of this period, she thinks that her infidelity with Whitfield is worth the sins she commits. In truth, she reveals no remorse at all for her actions; Addie feels that she deserves this disobedience. God and man owe her the right to be delighted with another guy. Her idea of sin is explained by the following: “I would think about sin as I would think of the clothing we both used worldwide’s face, of the circumspection required because he was he and I was I […] I would consider him as thinking of me as dressed also in sin, he the more stunning since the garment he had exchanged for sin was sanctified” (174-175). Sin was something that had to occur in order for her to make it through another day; sin was a lovely escape. “Sin is just a matter of words,” she says, “to [individuals] redemption is simply words too” (168 ). She likewise acknowledges that the sin they commit together is magnified by the reality that he is an ordained minister; however, instead of sensation bad about this reality, Addie sees it as a turn-on. To her, this makes him all the more lovely because he is compromising his vows and way of life for her business. The reality that Whitfield consents to these relations is evidence that he too has a disturbing relationship with the God he purports to serve.
Anse, like his partner, makes no spiritual effort and does not conceal this truth. He too believes that the world owes him something, in spite of his laziness and lethargy, and believes that the God ought to take care of him– especially given that He put him by the misfortune of a road. He considers himself to be a great guy, commenting:
I have heard guys cuss their luck and right, for they were wicked men. However I do not state it’s a curse on me, because I have done no incorrect to be cussed by. I am not religious, I reckon. However peace is in my heart: I know it is. I have done things however neither much better nor even worse than them that pretend otherlike, and I understand that Old Marster will look after me when it comes to ere a sparrow that falls. But it seems hard that a man in his need could be so flouted by a road (28 ).
His quote is filled with contradictions, first declaring he is not a wicked man then claiming he is a sinful male however he is no worse than other sinful males that pretend they are not. Undoubtedly, his ideas of right and wrong, excellent and bad have actually ended up being obscured throughout his life time.
The final, a lot of interesting element of the dysfunctional relationships within As I Lay Passing away derives from Faulkner’s experimental blurring of the lines between what is considered normal or not. Faulkner meshes the connotations of affectionate love and violent hatred to create some sort of violent love. Violence exists in some of the less loving relationships also. The relationship between Addie and her precious Gem includes this twisted paradox. Darl, always observant, comprehends his mom’s bias for Gem and notes “that’s why ma always whipped him and cuddled him more” (18 ). It would appear that if a mom adored one child more than the rest, then that child would not receive as much reprimanding, but that does not be true here. Action of any kind was for the Bundrens an expression of their love for one another. Jewel at one point silently wishes that “it would simply be me and her on a high hill and me rolling rocks down the hill at their faces, selecting them up and throwing them down the hill deals with and teeth and all by God” (15 ). Jewel thinks that sharing this violent show his mom would be satisfying and beneficial for the 2, nearly as one would consider going to the park or getting ice cream with their moms and dads: just something that ought to strike take everybody– and their suffering– out of the photo.
Faulkner also shows “violent love” through characters who might not even realize it. Vardaman truly believes that he is sweetly helping his mom by drilling holes in her coffin; however, the audience is entrusted a gory vision of a dead women’s face being unwittingly damaged. The images of dead Addie and Vardaman’s dead, bloody fish becomes knotted together by the boy’s sorrow, expressing contradictions of love for his departed mom and the violent, baffled destruction of his fish.
Last But Not Least, Dewey Dell’s situation provides contradictions as well. An act generally performed out of love and happiness causes extreme discomfort and suffering for Dewey Dell, both physically and mentally. She is so involved her worry that she has little time to consider anything or anyone else. Her child, a symbol of genuine love and love to most, is her prominent source of strife; for that reason, she plans to take care of this issue by having an abortion: “That’s what they mean by the womb of time: the misery and the despair of spreading bones, the tough girdle in which lie the annoyed entrails of events” (121 ).
William Faulkner, speculative and cutting-edge as a modernist author, plays with the notion of brokenness and fragmentation by challenging the household system. Each member of the Bundren household has his or her own set of vices– especially against one another– within his novel As I Lay Dying. He defines ideas of dysfunctional relationships in between husband and wife, moms and dad and child, sibling and brother or sister, and even God and guy. In a number of these relationships, violence and sadism end up being very prominent as ways of damage and, paradoxically, love.
Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying: The Corrected Text. New York: Vintage, 1990. Print.
Wagner, Linda W. “As I Lay Perishing: Faulkner’s All in the Family.” Galileo. JSTOR: College Literature. 1974