In 1873 slavery had been abolished in Cincinnati, Ohio for 10 years. This is the setting in which Toni Morrison positions the characters for her powerfully moving novel, Precious. After the Emancipation Proclamation and after the Civil War, Sethe, the mother who murdered her kid to secure her baby from a life time of slavery, has yet to know the real significance of liberty. Such a controversial, hard-to-swallow plot is specific to raise the hairs of lots of readers. Too often, nevertheless, Beloved is seriously scrutinized for its ‘clearly symbolic storyî and not properly valued for the vibrant metaphors, essential to the understanding of post-civil war slavery (Rumens). Morrisonís extreme metaphorical writing serves as a continuous tip of Setheís definitely enslaved life, bound to her regret, her past and her horrifically haunting memories.
Morrison’s prose is ridden with symbolic significance, frequently leaving space for numerous reader interpretations. While some elements of the plot are totally developed, explained and translated by the author, others are merely alluded to so that the reader can discover their own significance in the image Morrison produces.
The many reference’s to Sethe’s ‘taken milkî could be one of the images that Carol Rumens attacks in her critique for being ‘extremely symbolic.î This is an element of Sethe’s life that Morrison completely explores and translates in her writing. She conveys the importance of producing a bond between mom and child through nursing, and reveals the destruction caused when this bond is broken. When Sethe shows up in Cincinnati after getting away from sweet home she is reunited with her children, this reunion is bound by a vivid image of nursing, ‘she enclosed her left nipple with the 2 fingers of her right had and the child opened her mouth. They struck house togetherî( 94 ).
To suggest that such themes as these are too apparent implies that Carol Rumens has neglected the primary significance of this image. The importance of a daughter being nursed by a mother can be traced to the start of Sethe’s life when she is denied of her own mom’s milk and she ‘sucked from another woman whose job it wasî (60 ). Sethe relives the torture of having her milk taken from the kids at Sugary food Home due to the fact that, in a similar way to how her mom was deprived, the inhumanity of slavery robbed her of the only pleasure a slave woman is given, the gift of supporting her kid. This is the kind of indicating that Morrison desires the reader to find in her writing.
On the surface many of the metaphors in Beloved appear to be too obvious, but as with all of Morrison’s writing, there is always a hidden significance behind her visually appealing style. When Carol Rumens described Cherished to be ‘overly symbolicî she is indicating that the novel is merely a string of symbols that comprise a plot. If this is the case Rumens has failed to notice the extreme effect Morrison’s metaphors and symbols create, and the vital depth they add to the novel. The ‘chokecherry treeî shaped scar on Sethe’s back, for instance, is a tip of the deep sorrow of her past. The truth that it is on her back is necessary since it is constantly with her but she can not see it, in similar manner in which her grief is ever present but constantly pushed aside and neglected. There is plainly legitimate thinking behind Morrison’s option to form Sethe’s scar into a tree, and she describes it look with graphic detail as ‘a chokecherry tree. Trunk, branches, and even leaves. Might have cherries tooî (16 ). This description is a parody. It produces a picture of life, a blossoming tree in spring, however Sethe can not feel it because ‘her back skin has been dead for yearsî( 18 ). This resembles Sethe’s emotional life; although physically alive, she has actually been mentally frozen or dead because she murdered her child eighteen years previously earlier.
Stanley Crouch argues that Morrison ‘can’t resist the temptation of the trite and the sentimentalî when he refers to the scene in which Sethe gets her tree formed scar. He has ignored, however, the important significance of this powerful metaphor. Morrison deliberately alludes to this ‘chokecherry treeî because it is one of her greatest metaphors for Sethe’s life that is completely terrified by the inhumanity of slavery, simply as her back is completely terrified by the unmanageable desire of the boys at Sweet Home.
Color could also be under attack by Rumens and Crouch in their reviews, but if so, the significance of such a metaphor has, once again, been regretfully overlooked. Infant Suggs is the very first to realize its value when ‘she utilized the little energy left for considering colorî (4 ). She started observing color when she was a free female and Sethe thinks that this is because ‘she never ever had time to see it, not to mention enjoy it beforeî (201 ). Why then had Sethe not delighted in or a minimum of noticed the color of things throughout her time as a totally free lady in Cincinnati? There had actually just been 2 colors that were of any significance to Sethe when she was enslaved on Sweet Home, and those were black and white, the two colors that dictated her entire life. Even Sethe wonders how she might go so long without so much as observing the color of the world around her.
Every dawn she operated at fruit pies, potato meals and vegetables while the cook did the soup, meat and all the rest. And she could not remember keeping in mind a molly apple or a yellow squash. Every dawn she saw the dawn, but never ever acknowledged or mentioned its color. There was something wrong with that (39 ).
Morrison’s solution to this problem of Sethe’s oblivion to color is basic, and is a recurring concept throughout the book. Sethe did not understand freedom. She had delighted in the ‘totally free lifeî for twenty-eight days following her escape from Sugary food Home, but this was cut short by the sight of her children red blood, and made concrete by her two-year sentence in jail. After that, as Morrison shows through the loss of color, Sethe returned to living her enslaved life, caught in the memories of her past.
If the loss sensitivity to color represents Sethe as a servant to her past, then the physical presence of Beloved makes Sethe a slave to her regret. Beloved appears in the flesh the day that Paul D, Denver, and Sethe go to the carnival. This is Sethe’s ‘initially social outing in eighteen years, î and for that reason a best time for Cherished to surface area and refresh Sethe’s feeling of guilt, not just for eliminating her child, but also for enjoying herself at the carnival (46 ). Morrison has created a devilish figure to make sure that Sethe does not get brought away, totally free herself from her terrible past, and start ‘a lifeî with Paul D (46 ). Instead, Sethe is subtly tormented by Beloved’s existence and her relentless questions that have a tendency to dig-up unwanted memories. Questions that in the beginning seem safe such as ‘where your diamonds?î take Sethe back to the jail where they were her earrings were secured of her skirt, therefore reminding her of why she was there in the very first location, and eventually restoring her feelings of regret and pity.
In a desperate effort to reduce her of her own regret, Sethe ends up being a slave to Beloved’s desires. Precious is the personification of desire. She takes and takes with no feeling of regret of her own. Her desires are first made obvious by her greedy routines at the table continuously eating and wanting food even when she is healthy and growing plump. Then her greed establishes and ‘Denver saw how greedy she was to hear Sethe talkî (63 ). As it manifests itself in the novel, Beloved’s desires grow stronger and more ridiculous, and she will go to any length to achieve her cravings. She wants a mother to give her all her attention, even if it results in Sethe’s death. She wants Paul D to leave so she physically drives him out of the house into the cold house with a concoction of his desire for her. In doing so, she ultimately makes Paul D a slave to her desires too. Morrison’s use of this strong desire as a powerful force is fascinating due to the fact that as an outcome of Sethe complying with all of Beloved’s desires, she ends up being less like a mom and more like a child, which triggers Denver to go the neighborhood for aid, and ultimately leads to Precious destruction.
There are books that have everything defined for the reader, and there are books that make the reader really believe before they comprehend the significance of every image. There are novels that the reader can put down and go to sleep, and there are others keep you awake in the evening thinking of why Halle had butter smeared all over his face or what was meant by orange squares sewn into the quilt. The difference between these two types of books is the distinction between great and bad. Carol Rumens critique of the book is incorrect in saying it is ‘extremely symbolicî because it was these symbols and metaphors that made Precious the winner of the Pulitzer Reward for fiction. Unlike most books, it is not the last chapter that ultimately connects the plot together, it is Morrison’s attention to information and development of metaphors throughout the text that made Beloved a work of art that can be checked out again and once again, each time finding brand-new meaning to images and signs.