Toni Morrison through her novel, Precious (1987 ), attempts to reacquaint the readers with the history of American slavery by selecting to present it through the African-American neighborhood’s experience instead of the white American point of view. The story of Sethe who is based upon a reality person, Margaret Garner, initiates the process of healing and reconciliation with the emotionally traumatic past. This ritual of healing that Morrison brings to the fore taps not just into Christian traditions however also the cultural material of the African customizeds and beliefs. Much of this culture is the structure of the Black American neighborhood that was recently formed after the extensive duration of slavery. This is shown in the different importances employed by Morrison to breathe life into the communal story of the ‘sixty million and more” African-Americans who passed away during the Middle Passage and are the bearers of the slave legacy. This paper has picked to take a look at the significance of colours, the images of trees, the act of calling and re-naming and the images of water that are powerful symbols throughout Toni Morrison’s unique, Cherished.
Colours have actually played a substantial role in literature and are used to convey myriad meanings. Morrison utilizes colour to communicate the “repercussions of slavery” as part of what Cheryl Hall describes as a “advanced system of duplicated concepts” that is in play in the novel (Bast, “Reading Red”). While colours such as the emerald green of “Denver’s boxwood space” and the 2 “spots of orange” in the dull quilt Infant Suggs owned, represented support and hope, the colour red had deeper and more extreme undertones attached to it. As explained by Morrison “there is practically no colour whatsoever in its pages, and when there is, it is so plain and remarked upon, it is essentially raw” (“Offensive” 397). Bast notes that red, which is generally viewed as a “universal amplifier” of intense concepts of danger, blood, fire or love, serves an exclusive purpose in this novel. It encapsulates the evils of slavery and the psychological trauma that is a repercussion of this practice. Sethe draws attention to how Infant Suggs considered colours towards completion of her days starting with blue and after that continuing to yellow and after that pink but never getting round to red. She thought Child had actually seen enough of that colour in the violence she had actually experienced all her life and the infant blood that had actually oozed from her granddaughter’s sliced throat. Sethe too, haunted by this image and the pink shade of her daughter’s tombstone, is not able to process other colours up until the 3rd part of the book where she finds out that her child has returned in the type of Beloved. This is when we see Morrison generate a riot of colours as Sethe dresses up her daughters in intense flashy coloured clothes and ribbons. The other threatening incident related to the colour red is when Stamp Paid discovers a red ribbon drifting by in the river Ohio. A gruesome photo is painted of the atrocities meted out to slaves, when the ribbon is described as still being attached to a clump of hair which has littles the scalp still holding on to it. A less sinister episode connected to the colour is Sethe’s recollection of Amy’s quest for carmine (red) velour which resonates with Infant Suggs’ desire to look at in a different way coloured pieces of fabric. The more powerful message being put throughout here is that the little satisfaction derived from taking a look at colours offers both Amy, an indentured servant, and Child Suggs, a previous slave, a sense of deep relief after a life of hardship. Sethe explains Infant Suggs’ new profession with colours as that of someone who never ever truly had the possibility to see the world and value it. At the same time Amy’s quest has a sense of futility in the hope of a better future. In Paul D’s case, his “red heart” represents feeling and emotion while the red rooster, Mister, is symbolic of manhood and also questions Paul D’s conception of it. Throughout the unique, rotating pictures of life and death are depicted by the spectrum of the colour red. The red roses that line the path to the carnival seem to hail the new life that Sethe, Denver and Paul D are about to embark on together but at the very same time they stink of death. Therefore, we see that colours are a trope that constitute the text in itself and it is through the characters’ interaction with these colours that the unique narrates the processing of trauma (Bast).
According to William J. Terrill, “Cherished explores trees within the particular consciousness of American slavery, where they have multivalent significances: whips, changes, scars, and, paradoxically, the healing and regenerative power of nature and community” (126 ). Yet, other critics such as Michele Bonnet preserve that the trees are important to the African culture and religious beliefs and play a protective and healing role in the narrative. But the fact is that no connotation, either wholly negative or positive, can be connected to this images. These images operate in both the regenerative in addition to insidious and misleading structures. The very first circumstances that has been inspected constantly is the “chokecherry tree” on Sethe’s back. The scar marks the ordeals overcome in the slave tradition and is a statement to the trauma while sublimating the website of brutality by being compared to an image blossoming with life. Amy’s visualization of the scar as a pretty tree not just presents faith in art and imagination however likewise the requirement to make sense of the servant narrative. This is the agenda being accomplished by the book through the power of translation being worked out by language to reimagine a source of pain and embarrassment as a sign of growth and hope. Next, Denver’s “emerald closet” of boxwood trees is viewed as a repose from her privacy where she paradoxically seeks convenience in seclusion. Likewise, Paul D discovers a buddy in a tree at Sweet House, which he refers to as “Sibling”. He is likewise comforted on his long journey to flexibility by the flowering trees that direct his way towards the north. Sethe too associates an Edenic conception with Sweet House plantation by thinking of the lovely trees that grew there as she reflects on her past (Weathers priced estimate by Terrill, 127). The Clearing where Child Suggs performed her routines of healing are another example of their centrality to African spirituality and conquering injury. But they are likewise sites for scary incidents such as the burning of Sixo and the lynching of other slaves whom Paul D. witnesses on his wanderings. The trees hence conceal the insidious acts dedicated by the teacher and his nephews at Sweet House therefore are connected to the darker side of mankind as well. This is enhanced by Stamp Paid’s discourse on how the white folks “put the jungle” in the slaves and then fear the effects of savagery that they are accountable for.
The act of identifying is connected to one’s sense of identity and selfhood. This right, to choose on their own as to who they are, is also taken away by the white slave owners who have the desire to organize and “specify” all that surrounds them (Crevecoeur)– whether plants, animals or servants. Baby Suggs’ unawareness of the main name she had been offered by the servant traders and her look for her household emphasises the absence of “self-knowledge” and “self-recognition” under slavery. The reader learns that her life before Sugary food Home was bleak where her old master never even referred to her by any name. This absence of a name represents the extremely rejection of her humankind. On being freed, she refuses to pass the name on her proof of sale and keeps the name her spouse had actually provided her which the rest of her neighborhood recognized her by, therefore, proving the value of relationships to her identity. This is a motion towards her breaking free from the bonds of slavery and claiming ownership of herself. Likewise, Stamp Paid also rejects his name on the proof of sale, Joshua, which had scriptural foundations. His brand-new name marks the ordeals he has lived through particularly the one where he has no claim to his own better half who is made use of repeatedly by his master’s kid. While Baby Suggs’ name is tied to social relations and love, Stamp Paid’s “renaming” is reminiscent of his outrage. It likewise refers to his role as an envoy for the Underground Railroad that ensured that the “bundle” (individuals being sent through) would definitely reach its location. Like Sethe’s scar, his name is empowering and marks the honour in his having made it through the hardships of slavery and defying teacher’s command that “definitions came from the definers and not the defined”. It is in this regard that Baby Suggs and Stamp Paid declare their selves and assume the position of definers. Morrison also presents a various outlook to the significance of names through the characters of Sethe and Beloved. Both these names have roots in the scriptural context; Sethe being originated from the scriptural figure Seth and Beloved from the pastoral preaching that starts with the words “Very much Cherished”. Sethe is comprehended to be antithetical to Seth, the third child of Adam and Eve who is favoured by God and is also the blessed and prosperous “dad of humanity”. Yet, they share a resemblance in the sense that both play the role of the saviour for their race. Sethe’s nursing infant, on the other hand, never ever had the chance to own an identity. She passed away anonymous and the name Sethe picks to have etched on her tombstone is an inverted interpretation of whom the expression “A lot Cherished” was initially implied to resolve. In sermons, the pastor addresses his flock i.e. the living members of the church who have collected to mourn the dead as “Dearly Precious”. Sethe’s use of the word “Precious” is effective as it fuses both the world of the living as well as the dead. Beloved, who is an agent of the quelched servant past, is also in the actual sense something to “be enjoyed” as Krumholz explains that the process of recovery is propelled forward by each character accepting their pasts no matter how terrible and evasive (407 ).
Amongst the abundance of significant images and metaphors that Toni Morrison utilizes in the novel, the recurring image of water is a symbol with the inmost connection to the story. The images of water as the rain, the river and water itself have detailed mental and religious foundations. Parallels can be drawn between the direction of the story and the motion of water which is fluid hence meaning the freedom in one’s stream of consciousness as well as the absence of control one has more than it (Chen and Wang, 95). Memory and water are interwoven gadgets where just like streaming water, Sethe’s memory wanders backward and forward in time. It also plays a crucial function in signifying the relation shared by Sethe and Beloved, when the ghost goes back to the world of the living. Beloved’s first look as she emerges from the river is uncomfortable and just like an infant emerging from the waters of the womb. Next, when Sethe encounters her outside the house she feels an abrupt desire to lose water similar to water breaking from her womb. This suffices for the reader to infer that the complete stranger is none other than Sethe’s dead child woman who has actually returned. Sethe’s memory is likewise triggered when she sees water dribble from Beloved’s mouth simply the way her baby’s saliva had dribbled onto her face. She remembers these instances later on when she determines that Beloved is her daughter. Beloved’s thirst for water when she initially concerns 124 is symbolic of her unquenched thirst for her mom’s love and attention which was denied to her. Hence, the sign of water contributes to the larger theme of motherhood that is prevalent in the text. Other instances are the baptismal result of the rain on Paul D when in Alfred, Georgia and the link in between history and the image of the river. Precious, being a novel based upon a number of Christian paradigms, utilizes the image of rain in the biblical sense to reveal the purging of the unbearable evils of slavery through the experience of Paul D and the 46 other detainees in Alfred. It, hence, represents an emancipation of the servants from their masters which looks like a violent flood that gets rid of all that depends on its course. The river Ohio symbolises life, hope, freedom as well as the passage of time in history. When Sethe crosses this river to reach Cincinnati, she is actually escaping and moving far from the evils of her previous towards the start of a new life.
Thus, we see that Morrison’s carefully crafted metaphors and symbols and their literalization in the narrative cater to a much deeper understanding of the unique and assist materialize the interlinked stories of the Black community. These symbols are reflections of the practices of western African culture such as the “calling custom, ancestral praise, acceptance of the supernatural, harmony with nature, and the connecting of specific wholeness to rootedness in a community” and are connected with favorable values in the text, as kept in mind by Ayer Sither.