In an unique about racism and slavery, one can not pay too much attention to the matter of colors. In Toni Morrison’s Beloved, however, the concern of color is not confined to conversations on race. Blood, ribbon, even roosters, all clearly colored, find the surroundings of the unique and supply important insight into the prominent styles of both dehumanization and the struggle for flexibility.
Sethe, the novel’s protagonist, lives in a world specified entirely in black and white. The racial dichotomy produced by slavery, integrated with terrible associations of occasions brought on by slavery, has actually rubbed all of the color out of her world. Sethe’s failure to see color begins slowly after she murders her own kid in a desperate attempt to save the child from a life of slavery:
Every day she worked at fruit pies, potato meals and vegetables while the cook did the soup, meat and all the rest. And she could not remember remembering a molly apple or a yellow squash. Every dawn she saw the dawn, however never ever acknowledged or said its color. There was something incorrect with that. It was as though one day she saw red infant blood, another day the pink gravestone chips, which was the last of it (47 ).
Sethe’s obliviousness to color is explained by the absence of liberty that Sethe has experienced in her life. She does have one brush with color, the threatening red that will come back constantly throughout the unique, when she escapes to have Denver. Amy, the ‘whitewoman’ who helps in Denver’s birth, is taking a trip to Boston to look for velour. “Carmine,” she states, referencing the deep blood red. “That implies red but when you speak about velvet you got to say ‘carmine.'” (41 ). This red is reviewed upon Sethe’s murder of her child around twenty eight days later on. After the death, Sethe is imprisoned for 2 years, restricting her freedom even further.
Sethe thinks that Infant Suggs, her mother-in-law of sorts, started to contemplate color due to the fact that of Infant’s newly found liberty. Sethe mentions that,” [n] ow I understand why Child Suggs pondered color her ins 2015. She never had time to see, let alone enjoy it prior to” (237 ). This mental connection of Sethe’s between color and liberty makes an intriguing point. After Sethe’s release from jail, she is no longer a slave in the technical sense of being someone else’s property. Nevertheless, her continued inability to see color illustrates that in her own mind, Sethe is still enslaved. This sense of continued binding is because of her past. She feels guilt-ridden due to Beloved’s murder, however it is not the actual act of murder which interrupts her. It is the idea that Beloved, as a child, could not comprehend the intentions behind her death. When Beloved appears in human form, Sethe does not recognize her instantly. Eventually the reappearance is recognized for what it is and at this point, Sethe “pleaded for forgiveness, counting, listing again and again her factors: that Beloved was more crucial, implied more to her than her own life” (285 ). This sort of continued yoke and submission continues the enslavement of Sethe’s life and forbids her from experiencing any color, conserve for those that define her: black and white.
Baby Suggs’ relationship with color is not as straightforward as Sethe assumes it to be though. It is true that she started thinking of color after she gained her freedom, however it is a bit more intricate. In a conversation with Stamp Paid, Child Suggs discusses her fascination with colors. She begins:
“What I need to do is get in my bed and lay down. I wish to fix on something safe in this world.”
“What world you talking about? Ain’t nothing safe down here.”
“Yes it is. Blue. That do not hurt no one. Yellow neither.”
“You getting in bed to think of yellow?”
“I likes yellow” (211 ).
Till Beloved’s murder, it would be relatively basic to pin down Baby Suggs’ preferred color as the black skin of her fellow slaves. At a spiritual gathering in the woods, Child Suggs enhances the dominant dichotomies of the servant population– black versus white, oppressed versus oppressor. She shouts about the white contempt for the skin color of slavery when she advises the listening slaves that “in this here place, we flesh; flesh that weeps, chuckles; flesh that dances on bare feet in lawn. Love it. Love it hard. Yonder they do not love your flesh. They dislike it” (103 ). Suggs’ spectrum of color, prior to the death of Beloved, is composed of just two: black, which she totally identifies with, and white, which to her embodies oppression, hatred, and conceit.
Color makes an entryway into Baby Suggs’ life when she understands that she can not concur with either black thought, represented by Sethe, or white thought, such as that of schoolteacher, when coming to a conclusion about the circumstances surrounding Beloved’s death. Stamp Paid makes this observation:
The heart that pumped out love, the mouth that spoke the Word, didn’t count. They came in her backyard and she might not approve or condemn Sethe’s rough choice. One or the other might have conserved her, but battered by the claims of both, she went to bed. The whitefolks had tired her out at last (212 ).
After a life time of being knowingly all black and no white, Suggs starts to realize that there are certainly tones of implying that might not fit into such a two-tone system. In recognizing this, she must also understand the relative severity of reactions to black and white– a white can whip a black’s back till it bleeds, just because of the color it is, and Sethe, her own black daughter-in-law, eliminates Beloved at the sight of a white guy for worry of ongoing slavery for the child. As a response to this, Suggs chooses to invest the rest of her life concentrating on the more harmless colors, the ones nobody ever got eliminated or whipped over. It” [t] ook her a very long time to complete with blue, then yellow, then green. She was well into pink when she passed away. I do not believe she wished to get to red …” (237 ).
The color red handles a special significance in this book. Obviously, it is connected with blood, however as Morrison has been trying to stress throughout the unique, color is seldom as simple and unambiguous as it may seem. The character of Beloved is frequently associated with this significance of the color red. She is the killed one, whose blood triggered Sethe’s “damp red hands” and the “red puddle” which Child Suggs slips in (178-9). However when integrated with Stamp Paid’s red ribbon, and Paul D.’s own experience with the color red– the rooster Mister’s comb and the his own red heart that he initially doubts exists at all– the reader can come to acknowledge the use of red coloring not as a direct example to blood, but as more of an exclamation point to emphasize powerful dehumanizing minutes in the text.
Stamp Paid’s ribbon is an ideal example of this stressing convention:
Tying up his flatbed up on the bank of the Licking River, securing it as finest he could, he caught sight of something red on the bottom. Reaching for it, he thought it was a primary feather stayed with his boat. He pulled and what came loose in his hand was a red ribbon knotted around a curl of damp woolly hair, sticking still to its little scalp (212 ).
This image is an especially powerful one– a red ribbon, or perhaps a ribbon of a pale color dyed red with blood, attached to a piece of human scalp which was as soon as connected to a young girl. The typical mind avoids envisioning what sort of abuse might trigger an artifact like this to exist. Stamp Paid, however, has no such luxury. As a victim and observer of such treatment, he is forced to face the harsh heartlessness of the world to which he is restricted. “What are these people?” he laments, “You tell me, Jesus. What are they?” (213 ). The red color of the ribbon reminds him not only of the slave blood which has been spilled; it also requires him to face the dehumanizing aspect– somewhere, a young black female has actually been embarrassed, beaten, possibly to death, and her abusers would not even enable her the self-respect of retaining an easy red ribbon in her woolly hair.
Paul D. also references the color red in association with a terrible experience of his own. An iron bit has been placed in his mouth for penalty, and as he is being marched past the roosters, he spots Mister, a rooster he has actually known given that youth. Paul D. explains Mister as “hateful all right. Bloody too, and evil … Comb as huge as my hand and some sort of red” (85 ). Mister is merely a rooster perched on a tub, however the strength of his identity and his absence of restraint in every day life, deeply impact the shackled and iron-gagged Paul D. He laments:
Mister, he looked so … totally free. Better than me. Stronger, tougher … Mister was allowed to be and remain what he was. But I wasn’t allowed to be and stay what I was … I ‘d never ever be Paul D. once again, living or dead. Teacher altered me. I was something else which something was less that a chicken sitting in the sun on a tub (86 ).
Constant injustice robs Paul D. of the manhood which even the common rooster is allowed. A basic farm animal is more of a man than Paul D. in flexibility of action, and the referral to red serves to accent once again the depths of dehumanization suffered by the servants. Paul D., in the midst of his story, suddenly stops, ashamed of the conclusion to which it may lead Sethe. He refers to the “tobacco tin buried in his chest where a red heart used to be” and deals with that he will “not pry it loose now in front of this sweet tough female, for if she smelled of the contents it would shame him. And it would harm her to understand that there was no red heart intense as Mister’s comb beating in him” (86 ).
Nevertheless red may be somewhat stigmatized, Morrison also sprinkles her novel with episodes of vibrant freedom, such as Paul D.’s escape from the human boxes in Alfred, Georgia. He is informed by a Cherokee that if he follows the blossoming flowers on the trees, he will pertain to a safe place.
[Paul D.] raced from dogwood to blossoming peach … he headed for the cherry blooms, then the magnolia, chinaberry, pecan, walnut, and irritable pear … When he had lost them, and found himself without even a petal to direct him, he paused, climbed a tree on a hillock and scanned the horizon for a flash of pink or white in the leaf world that surrounded him (133 ).
Paul D. makes his liberty by following color, but it is color which progresses, not that which stagnates. By including Paul D.’s rainbow run for flexibility in her book, Morrison makes a crucial point. To resolve the liberty of a colored people, one should acknowledge and recover color itself. One should understand that even in a world specified by black and white, there are constantly colors, shades of meaning which can not be blackened or bleached.